Archaic Period
c. 600-480 BCE


Temple of Hera (Heraion)
c. 590 BCE

The columns and entablature of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were originally of wood. The cella walls, up to the height of 3.5 feet, was of limestone, and above that mud brick. The roof was tiled and decorated with terracotta ornaments. The wooden columns were gradually replaced with stone as they wore out; one of the wooden columns is recorded by Pausanias as still standing in the 2nd century CE. The remaining capitals are of all styles with the echinus varying from flat to upright. In plan the temple has all the necessary components: cella, pronaos, opisthodomos, with 2 columns "in antis." However, the plan is still somewhat long in relation to width with 6 columns at the ends and 16 down the flanks.

Temple of Artemis
Corfu (Corcyra)
c. 580 BCE

The pediment survives in the Archaeological Museum, Corfu

Temple of Hera I
Paestum (Poseidonia)
c. 550 BCE

At Paestum near Naples in Italy. Constructed of limestone (travertine) and sandstone

Temple of Apollo
c. 560 BCE

Constructed of limestone with a white stucco surface

Temple of Aphaia
c. 500 BCE

In the Temple of Aphaia, the Doric canon is established in its main outlines. The temple is built of limestone which was originally stuccoed. It was dedicated to a local goddess and quite small. The columns represent a further elongation in proportions seen in the Late Archaic, showing a new thinness. The entablature is higher, giving the building a lightness not seen earlier. The temple has 6 columns at the ends and 12 on the flanks. The interior used superimposed rows of Doric columns on each side of cella, creating a two-storied colonnade.

© Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe